Académie royale de Médecine de Belgique

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Résumé de Denis Le Bihan (Séance du 26 janvier 2008)

MEMBRANES, WATER AND DIFFUSION : POTENTIAL FOR BRAIN IMAGING

par D. LE BIHAN, M.D., Ph.D. (Paris), invité.

Among the astonishing Einstein’s papers from 1905 there is one which unexpectedly gave birth to a powerful method to explore the brain. Molecular diffusion was explained by Einstein on the basis of the random translational motion of molecules which results from their thermal energy. In the mid 1980s it was shown that water diffusion in the brain could be imaged using MRI. During their random displacements water molecules probe tissue structure at a microscopic scale, interacting with cell membranes and, thus, providing unique information on the functional architecture of tissues.  A dramatic application of diffusion MRI has been brain ischemia, following the discovery that water diffusion drops immediately after the onset of an ischemic event, when brain cells undergo swelling through cytotoxic edema. On the other hand, water diffusion is anisotropic in white matter, because axon membranes limit molecular movement perpendicularly to the fibers. This feature can be exploited to map out the orientation in space of the white matter tracks and  image brain connections. More recently, it has been shown that diffusion MRI could accurately detect cortical activation. As the diffusion response precedes by several seconds the hemoduynamic response captured by BOLD fMRI, it has been suggested that water diffusion could reflect early neuronal events, such as the transient swelling of activated cortical cells. If confirmed this discovery will represent a significant breakthrough, allowing non invasive access to a direct physiological marker of brain activation. This approach will bridge the gap between invasive optical imaging techniques in neuronal cell cultures, and current functional neuroimaging approaches in humans, which are based on indirect and remote blood flow changes.

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