Académie royale de Médecine de Belgique

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Vidéo et résumé de Benoît Chassaing


PERTURBATEURS « MODERNES » DU SUPER-ORGANISME HÔTE-MICROBIOTE : RÔLE DANS L’INFLAMMATION INTESTINALE CHRONIQUE

par Benoit CHASSAING, Ph.D. (Institute for Biomedical Sciences, Georgia State University-Atlanta)

The intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes, collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, its disturbance is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine.

We previously reported that, in mice, consumption of relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules and ubiquitous component of processed foods, induced chronic colitis in susceptible host and low-grade inflammation and obesity/ metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts. Emulsifier-induced effects were associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential.

Follow-up mechanistic studies demonstrated that the intestinal microbiota is the direct target of such additives, and importantly revealed that not all the microbiotas are impacted in the same way by such disturbance, supporting the concept that some individuals might be at higher risk of host–microbiota perturbations following emulsifier exposure. Our current work is revealing important inter-individual variations in microbiota composition and function, opening new therapeutic avenues to treat and prevent chronic inflammatory disorders.